In French: Bouches de Bonifacio
In Italian: Bocche di Bonifacio
The Strait of Bonifacio is an international strait separating Sardinia from Corsica; it enables communication between the Sea of Sardinia and the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is governed by the legal "right of unimpeded transit passage", although the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) designated a particularly sensitive sea area (PSSA) covering the strait and adjacent areas. The MEPC agreed to designate the Strait of Bonifacio as a PSSA, following its approval in principle at the last session, and consideration of associated protective measures by the Sub-Committee on Safety of Navigation (NAV) in June 2011.
The Strait of Bonifacio, that takes its name from the town of Bonifacio, the southernmost town of Corsica, has a maximum depth of 89 metres and separates the Italian island of Sardinia from the French island of Corsica, only 11 kilometres far from each other. The Strait enables passage from the Sea of Sardinia in the west to the Tyrrhenian Sea in the east and is a sensitive area for navigation. At its eastern end lies the Italian Archipelago of La Maddalena, and Cavallo Island and the Lavezzi Islands, belonging to France; in the northern part of the strait, ships have to avoid the reefs of Sperduto and the Lavezzi Islands, while in the south are situated the Sardinian islands of Razzoli and La Presa. Navigation is possible along a narrow three-mile wide stretch and ships are asked to take a recommended route just over one mile wide.
Since the Strait of Bonifacio is one of the most outstanding zones in the Mediterranean in terms of biodiversity, France and Italy have adopted a restrictive approach to navigation, in the sense that French or Italian ships carrying dangerous goods are banned from all transit of the Strait of Bonifacio. The Italian Merchant Marine decree of 26 February 1993, applicable to Italian ships only, forbids tankers carrying petroleum products or ships carrying dangerous or toxic substances to use the Strait of Bonifacio. Decree No. 84/98 of 3 November 1998, as amended by decree No. 56/2003, issued by the French maritime prefect for the Mediterranean, regulates navigation in the Strait of Bonifacio with a view to preventing accidental marine pollution. It establishes precautionary areas at the periphery of a two-way recommended route and a mandatory reporting system. Lastly, a Franco-Italian agreement on operational procedures for the ship reporting system in the Strait of Bonifacio (Bonifacio Trafic VTS (vessel traffic services)) was signed in Rome on 3 June 1999.
Since 2000, the public bodies located on the Strait of Bonifacio have received European funding (past INTERREG Programmes Italy-France "Islands" and Italy-France "Maritime" 2007-2013) to implement joint projects to support economic development, environmental protection, cultural promotion and transport. The Environment Office of Corsica & the National Park of La Maddalena Archipelago, whose cross-boundary cooperation dates back right to 2000, are actually working on the setting up of a European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC) in order to promote joint management and protection of both natural and cultural wealth, but also to prevent natural and technological risks. The final signature of this organization called “EGTC - PMIBB” seems to be imminent: the EGTC will be a structure under Italian law. Moreover, its head office will be located in La Maddalena, more precisely in Spargi Island, whereas its scientific and technical base will be situated in Lavezzi Islands, Bonifacio. The project is currently 75 % funded by the P.O. Maritime France-Italy 2007-2013 programme and other national, regional, and departmental counterparts.
The Strait is also covered by the Pelagos Agreement for the Creation of a Mediterranean Sanctuary for Marine Mammals, signed in Rome on 25 November 1999 by France, Italy and the Principality of Monaco. Due to its priceless environmental heritage, in the north-eastern side of the Strait of Bonifacio two protected areas – the Natural reserve of the Strait of Bonifacio and the National Park of La Maddalena Archipelago – were instituted in the 1990’s. Significant problems such as the trade traffic in the strait of Bonifacio and the risks of damaging the biological balance of the area in case of accident are now reinforced thanks to the creation of the EGTC-PMIBB. The south of Corsica is featured by the presence of 4 EU Directive Natura 2000 marine sites and the Archipelago of La Maddalena is almost entirely a SCI/SPZ. Considering both the Natural reserve of the Strait of Bonifacio and the Sardinian protected area, recent studies highlighted the presence of more than 15 marine habitats as defined in this Directive, thus demonstrating the high marine biodiversity of this area and its sensitivity to human impacts.
Participation to the NOSTRA project is a way to share our experience and above all to increase our skills thanks to exchanges with other Europeans Straits.
Corsican environnement Office/ Office de l’Environnement de la Corse (France)
The Corsican Environment Office (OEC) is an industrial and commercial public establishment which was created in 1991 under the umbrella of the Corsican territorial authority. It is situated on the French Corsican border of the Strait of Bonifacio, facing the Italian Sardinian Province of Sassari.
Their missions are to impulse and coordinate the regional policy for the protection and promotion of heritage, by combining the development and planning requirements of the territory. The OEC was appointed as environment authority for all the Corsican Territorial Authority’s intervention mechanisms.
Two elements show explain the OEC’s experience in the strait of Bonifacio:
Province of Sassari / Provincia di Sassari (Italy)
The Province of Sassari (PoS) is the Italian local authority which borders the Strait of Bonifacio. It faces the territorial authority of Corsica.
Since 2000 PoS managed as “Auxiliary Managing Authority” the INTERREG III A Italy-France “Islands” promoting the preservation of natural heritage and biodiversity by specific programme axes. PoS launched in 2007 “The Agreement for the North-West”, a network of public and private actors aimed at enhancing the development of Northwest Sardinia and the definition of shared strategies for sustainable development. Due to the Sassari coastal area it’s one of the most outstanding zones in the Mediterranean in terms of biodiversity, the PoS is realizing the RETRAPARC project to develop networking activities and governance tools between five natural parks (Natural Park of Asinara, Natural Park of Porto Conte, Natural Park of Maddalena and Natural Park of Corse) for the preservation of biodiversity and natural heritage in the area between Sardinia and Corsica.
These projects highlight the relevance of “horizontal interactive governance” model to assist a sustainable and competitive development in the “Straits’ systems”. Over the last 10 years, the PoS has undertaken with its partners several initiatives in order to ensure the construction of a territorially integrated system such as the completion of access roads and the integration of a multimodal cross-border mobility systems to well link Sardinia and Corsica to the continental areas.
National Park of Maddalena Arcipelago / Parco Nazionale dell’Arcipelago di La Maddalena (Italy)
The National Park of Maddalena Arcipelago (PNALM), is a geomarine park which covers an area of over 12 000 ha and 180 km of coasts in the Strait of Bonifacio. The NPMA is currently cooperating with the Corsican Environment Office (OEC) in order to jointly manage the common area of the Strait of Bonifacio. Thanks to this useful activity the two public bodies are now about to found the European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC) named "Parco Marino Internazionale delle Bocche di Bonifacio - PMIBB" that will guarantee this technical and scientific cooperation on a permanent basis.
Parco Nazionale dell'Arcipelago di La Maddalena
Via Giulio Cesare, 7
07024, La Maddalena
Contact person: Giovanella Urban
Phone: +39 (0)789790211